Augmented feedback is information about the movement that is provided in addition to the movement’s inherent feedback. This feedback augments the natural task environment with information that refers to the outcome in terms of the environmental goal of the movement (knowledge of results) or the movement pattern itself (knowledge of performance; Schmidt & Lee, 2005). Examples are verbal feedback of a coach, video feedback, as well as numerical, graphical, or auditory displays of movement-related measurements (e.g., kinematic feedback, dynamic feedback, biofeedback).
The function of augmented feedback is to reinforce good behavior (Thorndike, 1927) and to correct errors (informational function), but also to affect the learner’s motivational state (motivational function; Wulf & Schmidt, 2014). Feedback information can be provided concurrently during or terminally after the movement either immediately or delayed. The information can be quantitative (e.g., feedback on the release angle in shot put: “the release angle was 48 degrees”) or qualitative (e.g., “the release angle was too high”) and can have a positive (reinforcing) or negative (correcting) valence.
Augmented feedback might be reduced in terms of its relative frequency. Specific feedback schedules are the average feedback schedule (i.e., the mean performance value averaging a certain number of trials), the summary feedback (i.e., after a number of trials, feedback is provided for each trial), or the faded feedback schedule (i.e., the feedback frequency is systematically reduced from high to low). Within the bandwidth feedback paradigm, quantitative error feedback is only provided when the error exceeds a predefined performance bandwidth. The timing, the frequency, and the type of feedback have been shown to influence motor performance and learning in terms of accuracy and consistency. (Marschall, Bund, & Wiemeyer, 2007), as well as motor automaticity (Agethen & Krause, 2016).
Agethen, M., & Krause, D. (2016). Effects of bandwidth feedback on the automatization of an arm movement sequence. Human Movement Science, 45, 71 83.
Marschall, F., Bund, A., & Wiemeyer, J. (2007). Does frequent augmented feedback really degrade learning? A metaanalysis. E-Journal Bewegung und Training, 1, 74 85.
Schmidt, R. A., & Lee, T. D. (2005). Motor control and learning. A behavioral emphasis (4th ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics. https://amzn.to/3CPL1Su
Thorndike, E. L. (1927). The law of effect. American Journal of Psychology, 39, 212 222.
Wulf, G., & Schmidt, R. A. (2014). Feedback. In R. C. Eklund, & G. Tenenbaum (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology (pp. 288 292). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://amzn.to/3CMgqFh
***Contributed by Daniel Krause & Matthias Weigelt for Hackfort, D., Schinke, R. J., & Strauss, B. (Eds.). (2019). Dictionary of sport psychology: sport, exercise, and performing arts. Academic Press. https://amzn.to/3ZxARzT