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The Effects of the Bosman Ruling on National and Club Teams in Europe

The Bosman ruling and its aftermath allowed soccer players to move more freely between clubs in Europe. This study examines the performance of national and club teams in Europe before and after Bosman. Some national teams improved after the ruling while others became weaker, but the overall effects are small. At the club level, there is little evidence that the competitive balance of the domestic leagues in Europe was seriously harmed, although in the Champions League the top clubs appear to have become noticeably stronger.