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Ecological Modernization and the 2014 NHL Sustainability Report

In December 2015, the National Hockey League (NHL) was invited to present on a special sport panel showcasing the green leaders of the sport industry, which was hosted as part of the COP21 United Nations climate change talks in Paris. The NHL has won numerous awards for its environmental initiatives over the last number of years, arguably the most important of which was the release of its 2014 Sustainability Report (SR), where it highlighted its carbon footprint, water and energy use, as well as its numerous environmental projects. Utilizing the concept of ecological modernization (EM), this paper presents a detailed analysis of the NHL SR in order to explore how environmental advocacy, citizenship, and initiative is produced and shaped by the professional sporting industry.